What Science Say About ADHD!

These efforts have given me a clear understanding of the challenges facing adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the severe impact of the disorder on functional domains of life, and the conceptualization of the cognitive problems underlying the disorder. ...I appreciate the authoritative tone throughout the piece. "The authors...are leading experts in the field of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, adolescents and adults. All authors are psychologists...this book does a great job of discovering ADHD in adults Summary, including documented impairments in major life activities, educational and professional activities, drug use, and antisocial behavior.


Topics include the use of positive attention, homework strategies, and the right to education and learning styles of children with ADHD. The Youth Study-Mental Health (PLAY-MH) project expanded its focus to study a range of mental, behavioral, or emotional disorders, including ADHD and tic disorders (such as Tourette's syndrome) in four communities. It was conducted to shed more light on how many school-age children have ADHD, how the condition develops over time, what other conditions and risks children may face, and what treatment they may receive. More than 80 authors from 27 countries have collected more than 200 key findings about ADHD that are supported by research.


Many of the symptoms of ADHD, such as high levels of activity, difficulty staying still for long periods of time, and limited concentration, are common to children in general. Children with ADHD are different in that their hyperactivity and inattention is much higher than expected for their age and causes distress and/or problems functioning at home, school or with friends. ADHD has a variety of clinical manifestations that include inattention, hyperactivity, or impulsivity (4). The symptoms of ADHD can be mostly inattentive, mostly hyperactive or impulsive, or they can be a combination of both.


Saying that ADHD is sometimes misdiagnosed, even when overdiagnosed, is probably true, many experts say. In conclusion, ADHD is a widely studied disorder whose validity is supported by consistent high-quality data. Children and adolescents with ADHD show significant impairment and are at greater risk of social, emotional, and educational developmental deficits. Although there are treatments for ADHD symptoms, more information is needed about the management of ADHD so that children can learn and grow into adulthood without being at risk from their symptoms.


Despite the robust ability of medications to reduce ADHD symptoms, there is growing recognition of the relevance of a comprehensive approach with multimodal interventions that also target comorbid conditions such as learning difficulties, family dysfunction, low self-esteem, and comorbidities (5). To fully appreciate how children with ADHD are treated, it is necessary to understand the policies that affect how treatment is authorized and reimbursed by health insurance plans. Information was collected on the state's Medicaid prior authorization policy (as of November 2015) for prescribing ADHD medications to children.


Available tables, graphs, and side panels contain the study results and provide a detailed description of the methods used. The discussion of diagnostic criteria not only provides clinically useful information for adult evaluation, but should greatly influence the development of DSM-V. — Steven W. Farahone, MD, Distinguished Professor and Vice Chair of Research, Department of Psychiatry, State University. State Medical University of New York “The single best source of scientific information on ADHD in adults available today. This fascinating book offers a new perspective on ADHD in adults, analyzing the results of two major studies by leading authority Russell A. Barkley.


By carefully considering the therapeutic implications of these findings, the book also shows that existing diagnostic criteria do not accurately reflect the adult ADHD experience, and points the way to developing better criteria to focus on impairments in executive function. The team says the findings may help elucidate the biological mechanisms behind ADHD, which could help advance the development of new drugs. The team's work, published in the journal Nature Genetics, confirms findings from previous studies showing that larger patterns of genetic variation that are more common in ADHD patients are similar to those seen in patients with other disorders, including Depression and insomnia.


A previous study in 2017 found small but significant brain differences associated with ADHD between about 1,700 children and adults with ADHD and 1,500 people without ADHD, the largest dataset to date. In 2018, another brain-imaging study found evidence that structural changes associated with ADHD symptoms were recognizable in 4-year-olds, with less gray matter in areas related to activity and attention than their peers. Another study, published in PLOS One in 2017, found large differences in the size, shape and volume of gray and white matter in many brain structures in young adults with and without ADHD, so much so that 83% of the study Personnel were able to identify which study participants had disabilities. Just look at their brain scans.


The study also showed that neurological disorders are genetically more distinct from each other and from psychiatric disorders, including ADHD, with one big exception, adds Dr. Pharaoh. The researchers noted that ADHD runs more frequently in families.


While the exact causes of ADHD are unknown, research suggests that genes play a role, but other factors may contribute to or worsen symptoms. Other factors that can contribute to the development of ADHD include preterm birth, traumatic brain injury, and smoking, maternal alcohol consumption, or extreme stress during pregnancy. There is also combined ADHD, in which people tend to exhibit both inattention and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms.


In this new study, researchers looked at brain scans of 35 children and adolescents with ADHD (Inattentive or Combined ADHD) and compared them to 28 so-called neurotypical controls. But the study showed no association with ADHD symptoms and genetic abnormalities other than mood instability.

We also had important results related to ADHD and irritability. In a recent study, we looked at the role that irritability may play in ADHD symptoms during adolescence. Another study that looked at ADHD irritability and brain function connectivity showed a stronger connection between reward and threat processing brain regions and a weaker connection between attention and emotion processing regions.

Although large-scale studies have not been conducted to determine the long-term negative effects of stimulant therapy, especially if misdiagnosed, side effects of commonly used ADHD medications have been documented: high blood pressure and developmental delay. People with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often say their brains are different than those without the disorder, and research shows that to be true, said Dr. Steven W. Pharaone, distinguished professor and vice president of research in the Department of Psychiatry. SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY.


Our research shows that the structural relationship between brain regions associated with dopamine, a neurotransmitter involved in reward and affected by stimulant drugs, differs between people with ADHD and those with normal development. A 2015 study looked at studies showing that the dopamine transporter gene DAT1 can affect ADHD-like traits. After the first study, research continued to show a link between dopamine transporters and ADHD. A particular gene, DAT-1, has been implicated in ADHD and bipolar disorder and was highly active in the basal ganglia and prefrontal cortex, regions of the brain that are less common in ADHD patients.






6 views0 comments

Recent Posts

See All